What is Job Analysis?
Job Analysis Definitions
In the words of Edwin B. Flippo, “Job analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job”.
In the words of John A. Shbim, “Job analysis is the methodical compilation and study of work data in order to define and characterize each occupation, in such a manner as to distinguish it from all others”.
According to Michael J. Jucius, “Job analysis refers to the process of studying the operations, duties and organizational aspects of jobs in order to derive specifications, or as they are called by some job descriptions”.
According to Scott Clothier and Spriegal, “Job analysis is the process of critically evaluating the operations, duties and responsibilities of a specific job”.
Why is Job Analysis Important?
When do you need good Job design and Analysis?
- Workforce planning.
- Performance management.
- Recruitment and selection.
- Career and succession planning.
- Training and development.
- Compensation administration.
- Health, safety and security.
- Employee/labor relations.
- Risk management.
How-to: The Effective Job Analysis Process
Now, let’s talk about how to conduct a job analysis.
Functional Job Analysis
Job Analysis Template
What is Job Design?
Job Design Definition
In short, Job Design is the what, how much, how many, and the order of the tasks for a job to accomplish organization goals.
Examples of Job Design Questions
he following questions may be useful to consider when designing a job:
- How suitable is the amount of variety in the position?
- How much responsibility is there in the position?
- How much opportunity does the position give for autonomy?
- To what extent are the duties and tasks to be performed ‘whole’ tasks?
- How much feedback is provided about performance?
- How much opportunity is provided for participating in decisions?
- To what extent does the position provide for support and recognition?
- Is there a safe and healthy work environment?
Job Design Methods
Greater variety in a job can improve the interest, challenge and commitment of the role holder to the task. Doing the same repetitive tasks may offer little challenge and can lead to role holders losing interest or becoming and dissatisfied.
Variety means more than simply adding an extra but similar duty. For example, processing different forms would not make the work more meaningful as there may be no extra challenge. Some other type of relevant activity may, therefore, be worthwhile incorporating into the job.
Alternatively, too much variety can also be frustrating and a source of conflict and dissatisfaction. The optimum amount of variety will differ from person to person and will depend on the level of the position, and the needs of the job.
Individuals need to feel responsible for the work they are doing, either individually or as part of a team. Their work should be clearly identified so they can see that they are personally responsible for the outcomes (successes and failures) that occur as a result of their own actions. If the responsibilities are clear, then the role holder and their supervisor will be better able to know if the accountabilities of the position are being delivered. The employee should be able to understand the significance of the work they undertake and where it fits into the purpose of the organisation.
This goes hand in hand with responsibility. Autonomy means giving more scope to individuals to regulate and control their own work within the parameters set for the job. The role holder will need to have some areas of decision-making that they can call their own, within the overall framework of their job. For example, this might include scope for exercising some discretion over their method of working in order to deliver.
Individuals often receive more satisfaction from doing a ‘whole’ piece of work. This is more likely to occur when a task or job has a distinct beginning and end which is clearly apparent to the roleholder and others who work around them. It is highly desirable that people see the end results of the work they have produced, either on their own or as a part of a team.
Everyone benefits from information on how they are doing and this helps role holders feel motivated and contributes to their development in the role.
Job Design and Job Analysis